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  • Pectin
  • Alias : pectic polysaccharides
  • Classification :  Plant Gum
  • Pageviews : 261
  • what is  Pectin
  • Pectin is a natural part of the human diet, but does not contribute significantly to nutrition. The daily intake of pectin from fruits and vegetables can be estimated to be around 5 g (assuming consumption of approximately 500 g fruits and vegetables per
  • Introduction of colloid :
  • Sources and production

    Pears, apples, guavas, quince, plums, gooseberries, and oranges and other citrus fruits contain large amounts of pectin, while soft fruits like cherries, grapes, and strawberries contain small amounts of pectin.

    Typical levels of pectin in plants are (fresh weight):

    apples, 1–1.5%

    apricots, 1%

    cherries, 0.4%

    oranges, 0.5–3.5%

    carrots approx. 1.4%

    citrus peels, 30%

    The main raw materials for pectin production are dried citrus peel or apple pomace, both by-products of juice production. Pomace from sugar beet is also used to a small extent.

    From these materials, pectin is extracted by adding hot dilute acid at pH-values from 1.5 – 3.5. During several hours of extraction, the protopectin loses some of its branching and chain length and goes into solution. After filtering, the extract is concentrated in vacuum and the pectin then precipitated by adding ethanol or isopropanol. An old technique of precipitating pectin with aluminium salts is no longer used (apart from alcohols and polyvalent cations, pectin also precipitates with proteins and detergents).

    Alcohol-precipitated pectin is then separated, washed and dried. Treating the initial pectin with dilute acid leads to low-esterified pectins. When this process includes ammonium hydroxide, amidated pectins are obtained. After drying and milling, pectin is usually standardised with sugar and sometimes calcium salts or organic acids to have optimum performance in a particular application.[4]


    The main use for pectin (vegetable agglutinate) is as a gelling agent, thickening agent and stabilizer in food. The classical application is giving the jelly-like consistency to jams or marmalades, which would otherwise be sweet juices. Pectin also reduces syneresis in jams and marmalades and increases the gel strength of low calorie jams. For household use, pectin is an ingredient in gelling sugar (also known as "jam sugar") where it is diluted to the right concentration with sugar and some citric acid to adjust pH. In some countries, pectin is also available as a solution or an extract, or as a blended powder, for home jam making. For conventional jams and marmalades that contain above 60% sugar and soluble fruit solids, high-ester pectins are used. With low-ester pectins and amidated pectins less sugar is needed, so that diet products can be made.

    Pectin is used in confectionery jellies to give a good gel structure, a clean bite and to confer a good flavour release. Pectin can also be used to stabilize acidic protein drinks, such as drinking yogurt, to improve the mouth-feel and the pulp stability in juice based drinks and as a fat substitute in baked goods.[5] Typical levels of pectin used as a food additive are between 0.5 and 1.0% – this is about the same amount of pectin as in fresh fruit.[6]

    In medicine, pectin increases viscosity and volume of stool so that it is used against constipation and diarrhea. Until 2002, it was one of the main ingredients used in Kaopectate a medication to combat diarrhea, along with kaolinite. It has been used in gentle heavy metal removal from biological systems.[7] Pectin is also used in throat lozenges as a demulcent.

    In cosmetic products, pectin acts as stabilizer. Pectin is also used in wound healing preparations and specialty medical adhesives, such as colostomy devices.

    Sriamornsak[8] revealed that pectin could be used in various oral drug delivery platforms, e.g., controlled release systems, gastro-retentive systems, colon-specific delivery systems and mucoadhesive delivery systems, according to its intoxicity and low cost. It was found that pectin from different sources provides different gelling abilities, due to variations in molecular size and chemical composition. Like other natural polymers, a major problem with pectin is inconsistency in reproducibility between samples, which may result in poor reproducibility in drug delivery characteristics.

    In ruminant nutrition, depending on the extent of lignification of the cell wall, pectin is up to 90% digestible by bacterial enzymes. Ruminant nutritionists recommend that the digestibility and energy concentration in forages can be improved by increasing pectin concentration in the forage.

    In the cigar industry, pectin is considered an excellent substitute for vegetable glue and many cigar smokers and collectors will use pectin for repairing damaged tobacco wrapper leaves on their cigars.

    Legal status

    At the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee Report on Food Additives and in the European Union, no numerical acceptable daily intake (ADI) has been set, as pectin is considered safe.[9]

    In the United States, pectin is GRAS – generally recognized as safe. In most foods it can be used according to good manufacturing practices in the levels needed for its application ("quantum satis").

    In the International Numbering System (INS), pectin has the number 440. In Europe, pectins are differentiated into the E numbers E440(i) for non-amidated pectins and E440(ii) for amidated pectins. There are specifications in all national and international legislation defining its quality and regulating its use.

  • References:
  • 1. Braconnot, Henri (1825) "Recherches sur un nouvel acide universellement répandu dans tous les vegetaux" (Investigations into a new acid spread throughout all plants), Annales de chimie et de physique, series 2, 28 : 173-178. From page 178: … je propose le nom pectique, de πηχτες, coagulum, … ( … I propose the name pectique, from πηχτες [pectes], coagulum [coagulated material, clot, or curd], … ).

    2. Keppler, F; Hamilton, JT; Brass, M; Röckmann, T (2006). "Methane emissions from terrestrial plants under aerobic conditions". Nature. 439 (7073): 187–91. doi:10.1038/nature04420. PMID 16407949.

    3. Sriamornsak, Pornsak (2003). "Chemistry of Pectin and its Pharmaceutical Uses: A Review". Silpakorn University International Journal. 3 (1–2): 206.

    4. G. Eisenbrand, P. Schreier; RÖMPP Lexikon Lebensmittelchemie; Thieme, Stuttgart; Mai 2006

    5. May, Colin D. (1990). "Industrial pectins: Sources, production and applications". Carbohydrate Polymers. 12 (1): 79–99. doi:10.1016/0144-8617(90)90105-2.

    6. Thakura, B. R.; Singha, R. K.; Handab, A. .K; Raoc, M. A. (1997). "Chemistry and uses of pectin - A review". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 37 (1): 47–73. doi:10.1080/10408399709527767.

    7. Zy Z, Liang L, Fan X, Yu Z, Hotchkiss AT, Wilk BJ, Eliaz I."The role of modified citrus pectin as an effective chelator of lead in children hospitalized with toxic lead levels", Altern Ther Health Med. 2008 Jul-Aug;14(4):34-8.

    8. Sriamornsak, P. (2011). "Application of pectin in oral drug delivery". Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery. 8 (8): 1009–1023. doi:10.1517/17425247.2011.584867.

    9. Chemical risks in food. Retrieved on 2012-07-16.

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