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Your current position:China ChuangLian Edible Gum Website » Colloid » Gelatin

  • Gelatin
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  • Classification :  Animal Gum
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  • what is  Gelatin
  • Gelatin or gelatine (from Latin: gelatus meaning "stiff", "frozen") is a translucent, colorless, brittle (when dry), flavorless food derived from collagen obtained from various animal raw materials. It is commonly used as a gelling agent in food, pharmace

  • Introduction of colloid :
  • Composition and properties

    Gelatin is a mixture of peptides and proteins produced by partial hydrolysis of collagen extracted from the skin, bones, and connective tissues of animals such as domesticated cattle, chicken, pigs, and fish. During hydrolysis, the natural molecular bonds between individual collagen strands are broken down into a form that rearranges more easily. Its chemical composition is, in many respects, closely similar to that of its parent collagen.[1] Photographic and pharmaceutical grades of gelatin generally are sourced from beef bones and pig skin.

    Gelatin readily dissolves in hot water and sets to a gel on cooling. When added directly to cold water, it does not dissolve well, however. Gelatin also is soluble in most polar solvents. Gelatin solutions show viscoelastic flow and streaming birefringence. Solubility is determined by the method of manufacture. Typically, gelatin can be dispersed in a relatively concentrated acid. Such dispersions are stable for 10–15 days with little or no chemical changes and are suitable for coating purposes or for extrusion into a precipitating bath.[citation needed]

    The mechanical properties of gelatin gels are very sensitive to temperature variations, the previous thermal history of the gels, and the amount of time elapsing. These gels exist over only a small temperature range, the upper limit being the melting point of the gel, which depends on gelatin grade and concentration, but typically, is less than 35 °C (95 °F) and the lower limit the freezing point at which ice crystallizes. The upper melting point is below human body temperature, a factor that is important for mouthfeel of foods produced with gelatin.[3] The viscosity of the gelatin-water mixture is greatest when the gelatin concentration is high and the mixture is kept cool at about 4 °C (39 °F). The gel strength is quantified using the Bloom test.

    Early history of food applications

    The first use of gelatin in foods is attributed to Medieval Britain (1400s) when cattle hooves were boiled to produce a gel.[2] Further commercial development occurred in 1754 when a British manufacturing patent was issued.[2] Food applications in the USA and France during 1800-1900 appear to have established the versatility of gelatin, including the origin of its popularity in the USA as Jell-O.[3] Over middle-late 1800s, Charles and Rose Knox of New York manufactured and marketed gelatin powder, diversifying the appeal and applications of gelatin.[4]


    Culinary uses


    Eggs in aspic

    Probably best known as a gelling agent in cooking, different types and grades of gelatin are used in a wide range of food and nonfood products: common examples of foods that contain gelatin are gelatin desserts, trifles, aspic, marshmallows, candy corn, and confections such as Peeps, gummy bears, fruit snacks, and jelly babies. Gelatin may be used as a stabilizer, thickener, or texturizer in foods such as yogurt, cream cheese, and margarine; it is used, as well, in fat-reduced foods to simulate the mouthfeel of fat and to create volume. It also is used in the production of several types of Chinese soup dumplings, specifically Shanghainese soup dumplings, or xiaolongbao, as well as Shengjian mantou, a type of fried and steamed dumpling. The fillings of both are made by combining ground pork with gelatin cubes, and in the process of cooking, the gelatin melts, creating a soupy interior with a characteristic gelatinous stickiness.

    Gelatin is used for the clarification of juices, such as apple juice, and of vinegar.

    Isinglass, from the swim bladders of fish, is still used as a fining agent for wine and beer.[5] Besides hartshorn jelly, from deer antlers (hence the name "hartshorn"), isinglass was one of the oldest sources of gelatin.

    Technical uses

    1) This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

    2) Certain professional and theatrical lighting equipment use color gels to change the beam color. Historically, these were made with gelatin, hence the term, color gel.

    3) Gelatin typically constitutes the shells of pharmaceutical capsules to make them easier to swallow. Hypromellose is a vegetarian-acceptable alternative to gelatin, but is more expensive to produce.

    4) Some animal glues such as hide glue may be unrefined gelatin.

    5) It is used to hold silver halide crystals in an emulsion in virtually all photographic films and photographic papers. Despite some efforts, no suitable substitutes with the stability and low cost of gelatin have been found.

    6) Used as a carrier, coating, or separating agent for other substances, for example, it makes β-carotene water-soluble, thus imparting a yellow color to any soft drinks containing beta-carotene.

    7) Gelatin is closely related to bone glue and is used as a binder in match heads and sandpaper.

    8) Cosmetics may contain a nongelling variant of gelatin under the name hydrolyzed collagen.

    9) Gelatin was first used as an external surface sizing for paper in 1337 and continued as a dominant sizing agent of all European papers through the mid-nineteenth century.[6] In modern times, it is mostly found in watercolor paper, and occasionally in glossy printing papers, artistic papers, and playing cards, and it maintains the wrinkles in crêpe paper.

    Protein content

    Although gelatin is 98–99% protein by dry weight, it has little additional nutritional value, varying according to the source of the raw material and processing technique.


  • References:
  • 1. Ward, A.G.; Courts, A. (1977). The Science and Technology of Gelatin. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-735050-0.

    2. "Gelatin". Encyclopedia.com. 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2016.

    3. Wyman, Carolyn (2001). Jell-o: A Biography: the History And Mystery of America's Most Famous Dessert. Diane Publishing Company. ISBN 0756788544.

    4. "Gelatin: background". Encyclopedia.com. 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2016.

    5. "National Organic Standards Board Technical Advisory Panel Review: Gelatin processing" (PDF). omri.org.

    6. Thurn, Jim. "History, Chemistry, and Long Term Effects of Alum-Rosin Size in Paper". ischool.utexas.edu.


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