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  • Guar gum
  • Alias : guaran
  • Classification :  Plant Gum
  • Pageviews : 557
  • what is  Guar gum
  • Guar gum, also called guaran, is a galactomannan. It is primarily the ground endosperm of guar beans. The guar seeds are dehusked, milled and screened to obtain the guar gum.[1] It is typically produced as a free-flowing, off-white powder.
  • Introduction of colloid :
  • The guar bean is principally grown in India, Pakistan, U.S., Australia and Africa. India produces 2.5 - 3.5 million tons of guar annually, making it the largest producer with about 80% of world production, while Pakistan produced 250,000 tons of guar in 2013.

    Industrial applications
    1. Textile industry – sizing, finishing and printing
    2. Paper industry – improved sheet formation, folding and denser surface for printing
    3. Explosives industry – as waterproofing agent mixed with ammonium nitrate, nitroglycerin, etc.
    4. Pharmaceutical industry – as binder or as disintegrator in tablets; main ingredient in some bulk-forming laxatives
    5. Cosmetics and toiletries industries – thickener in toothpastes, conditioner in shampoos (usually in a chemically modified version)
    6. Hydraulic fracturing Shale oil and gas extraction industries consumes about 90% of guar gum produced from India and Pakistan.[2]
    7. Mining
    8. Hydroseeding – formation of seed-bearing "guar tack"[3]
    9. Medical institutions, especially nursing homes - used to thicken liquids and foods for patients with dysphagia
    10. Fire retardant industry - as a thickener in Phos-Chek
    11. Nanoparticles industry - to produce silver or gold nanoparticles, or develop innovative medicine delivery mechanisms for drugs in pharmaceutical industry.
    Food applications
    The largest market for guar gum is in the food industry. In the US, differing percentages are set for its allowable concentration in various food applications.[4][5] In Europe, guar gum has EU food additive code E412. Xanthan gum and guar gum are the most frequently used gums in gluten-free recipes and gluten-free products.
    Applications include:
    1. In baked goods, it increases dough yield, gives greater resiliency, and improves texture and shelf life; in pastry fillings, it prevents "weeping" (syneresis) of the water in the filling, keeping the pastry crust crisp. It is primarily used in hypoallergenic recipes that use different types of whole-grain flours. Because the consistency of these flours allows the escape of gas released by leavening, guar gum is needed to improve the thickness of these flours, allowing them to rise as a normal flour would.[6]
    2. In dairy products, it thickens milk, yogurt, kefir, and liquid cheese products, and helps maintain homogeneity and texture of ice creams and sherbets. It is used for similar purposes in plant milks.
    3. For meat, it functions as a binder.
    4. In condiments, it improves the stability and appearance of salad dressings, barbecue sauces, relishes, ketchups and others.
    5. In canned soup, it is used as a thickener and stabilizer.
    6. It is also used in dry soups, instant oatmeal, sweet desserts, canned fish in sauce, frozen food items, and animal feed.
    7. The FDA has banned guar gum as a weight loss pill due to reports of the substance swelling and obstructing the intestines and esophagus.[7]
    Nutritional and medicinal effects
    Guar gum, as a water-soluble fiber, acts as a bulk-forming laxative, so is claimed to be effective in promoting regular bowel movements and relieving constipation and chronic related functional bowel ailments, such as diverticulosis, Crohn's disease, colitis and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Several studies have found significant decreases in human serum cholesterol levels following guar gum ingestion. These decreases are thought to be a function of its high soluble fiber content.

    Guar gum has been considered of interest in regard to both weight loss and diabetic diets. But controlled trials found guar gum supplements were not effective in reducing body weight.[8]
    Some studies have found guar gum to improve dietary glucose tolerance.[18] Research has revealed the water-soluble fiber in it may help people with diabetes by slowing the absorption of sugars by the small intestine. Although the rate of absorption is reduced, the amount of sugar absorbed is the same overall. This may help diabetic patients by moderating glucose "spikes".
    Guar-based compounds, such as hydroxypropyl guar, have been in artificial tears to treat dry eye.[9]

  • References:
  • 1. "" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-04-18.
    2. Ram Narayan (August 8, 2012). "From Food to Fracking: Guar Gum and International Regulation". RegBlog. University of Pennsylvania Law School. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
    3. "Product description: Guar Tack. S&S Seeds Inc. 2006". Retrieved 2011-04-18.
    4. Food additive list
    5. Maximum Usage Levels Permitted- Guar gum
    6. Source: NOW Foods. Guar Gum Nutrition Label. Bloomingdale, IL: n.p., n.d.
    7. Lewis, JH (1992). "Esophageal and small bowel obstruction from guar gum-containing "diet pills": analysis of 26 cases reported to the Food and Drug Administration". Am. J. Gastroenterol. 87: 1424–8. PMID 1329494.
    8. Pittler, MH (2001). "Ernst E. Guar gum for body weight reduction: meta-analysis of randomized trials". Am J Med. 110 (9): 724–730. doi:10.1016/s0002-9343(01)00702-1.
    9. Pucker AD, Ng SM, Nichols JJ (2016). "Over the counter (OTC) artificial tear drops for dry

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